Metzger has a Ph.D., and specializes in literature and drama at The University of New Mexico, where she is a Visiting Lecturer in the English Department and an Adjunct Professor in the University Honors Program. In the following essay, she discusses the role of Venice in Ben Jonson's Volpone.
The setting for Ben Jonson's Volpone, is Venice. Many Renaissance playwrights, including William Shakespeare, used Venice as a setting for their plays, since this location represented, what many Englishmen considered to be the world's center of vice and debauchery. But, it can be argued that Jonson used Venice better than any other playwright because he depicted it in greater detail. This detail was essential, since Jonson used several of the myths associated with Venice its sexuality, its wealth, and its corruption. Ralph Cohen, in his essay, "The Setting of Volpone,'' points out that Venice is...
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Written during a period in which Ben Jonson had turned his hand largely to the making of entertaining masques and satirical antimasques, Volpone’s success did something to make up for the failure of his tragedy, Sejanus His Fall (1603). Volpone was performed by the King’s Men in London, and at the two universities to which Jonson later dedicated the play in his prologue. The play also led to Jonson’s most fertile dramatic period, that of the great comedies, which include Epicne: Or, The Silent Woman (1609), The Alchemist (1610), Bartholomew Fair (1614), and The Devil Is an Ass (1616). Jonson was preeminent among the Elizabethans and the Jacobeans as that rare combination of the academic and the creative genius. He was a serious classicist who criticized William Shakespeare’s “little Latin and less Greek,” modeling his own plays on the Romans. As a humanist he brought classical control and purity to English forms. More than anyone else at the time, Jonson followed critical prescriptions of his own time and of the classical era. Jonson believed that the poet had a moral function in society; he viewed drama as a means of social education. This attitude paved the way for the great English satirists of the eighteenth century. His diverse artistic character makes Jonson both representative of his own age and a predecessor of the more rigorous classicism of the Augustans.
Jonson’s style, as might be expected, is disciplined, formal, balanced, classically simple, and unembellished—a style that foreshadows the Cavalier School (who called themselves the sons of Ben). His dramatic verse is highly stylized, vibrant, and fast-moving; readers are hardly aware they are reading poetry. Rarely does Jonson allow himself the lyrical excursions of Shakespeare or the rhetorical complexity of Christopher Marlowe, although he was capable of both. There is a solidity, firmness, and straightforward clarity in his comedies equaled only by the classical French comic theater of Molière. In Volpone Jonson follows the Aristotelian unities of time, place, and action. The action of the play takes only one day (the unity of time); it occurs entirely in Venice (place); and, with the exception of some of the exchanges between Peregrine and Sir Politic Would-Be, the action is unified structurally, all centered on the machinations of Volpone, his follower, and the greedy dupes.
The theme of the play is greed, the vice that dominates the actions of all the characters. Family bonds, marriage, and...
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