Heike Kamerlingh Onnes, (born Sept. 21, 1853, Groningen, Neth.—died Feb. 21, 1926, Leiden), Dutch winner of the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1913 for his work on low-temperature physics and his production of liquid helium. He discovered superconductivity, the almost total lack of electrical resistance in certain materials when cooled to a temperature near absolute zero.
From 1871 until 1873 Kamerlingh Onnes studied and worked at Heidelberg University, notably with the German physicists Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff. Awarded a doctorate by the University of Groningen (1879), he taught at the Polytechnic School in Delft (1878–1882). From 1882 to 1923 he served as professor of experimental physics at the University of Leiden.
Influenced by the work of Johannes van der Waals, Kamerlingh Onnes investigated the equations describing the states of matter and studied the general thermodynamic properties of liquids and gases over a wide range of pressures and temperatures. He founded (1894) and built up the Cryogenic Laboratory (now known by his name) that established Leiden as the low-temperature research centre of the world. From 1895 to 1906 he concentrated on perfecting cryogenic experimental techniques and studied metals and fluids at low temperatures. Having built an improved hydrogen-liquefaction machine two years previously, he succeeded in liquefying helium in 1908. His attempts to solidify helium were fruitless until Willem Hendrik Keesom, his student and successor as director of the Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, achieved the feat in 1926.
Kamerlingh Onnes also demonstrated that the resistance of some electrical conductors disappears suddenly at a temperature near absolute zero (−273° C), and he termed this phenomenon “superconductivity.” His systematic researches on superconductivity (begun in 1911) were of extreme importance because of their bearing on the theory of electrical conduction in solids.
Prof Heike Kamerlingh OnnesFRSForHFRSE FCS ( (Dutch: [ˈɔnəs]); 21 September 1853 – 21 February 1926) was a Dutch physicist and Nobel laureate. He exploited the Hampson–Linde cycle to investigate how materials behave when cooled to nearly absolute zero and later to liquefyhelium for the first time. Kamerlingh Onnes was significantly influenced by the pioneering molecular theory of Johannes Diderik van der Waals. In 1908, he became the winner of the race to make liquid helium and because of this, he was also the discoverer of superconductivity in 1911: for certain materials, electrical resistance abruptly vanishes at very low temperatures.
Kamerlingh Onnes was born in Groningen, Netherlands. His father, Harm Kamerlingh Onnes, was a brickworks owner. His mother was Anna Gerdina Coers of Arnhem.
In 1870, Kamerlingh Onnes attended the University of Groningen. He studied under Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff at the University of Heidelberg from 1871 to 1873. Again at Groningen, he obtained his masters in 1878 and a doctorate in 1879. His thesis was "Nieuwe bewijzen voor de aswenteling der aarde" (tr. New proofs of the rotation of the earth). From 1878 to 1882 he was assistant to Johannes Bosscha, the director of the Delft Polytechnic, for whom he substituted as lecturer in 1881 and 1882.
He was married to Maria Adriana Wilhelmina Elisabeth Bijleveld (m. 1887) and had one child, named Albert. His brother Menso Kamerlingh Onnes (1860–1925) was a fairly well known painter (and father of another painter, Harm Kamerlingh Onnes), while his sister Jenny married another famous painter, Floris Verster (1861–1927).
University of Leiden
From 1882 to 1923 Kamerlingh Onnes served as professor of experimental physics at the University of Leiden. In 1904 he founded a very large cryogenics laboratory and invited other researchers to the location, which made him highly regarded in the scientific community. The laboratory is known now as Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory. Only one year after his appointment as professor he became member of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.
Liquefaction of helium
On 10 July 1908, he was the first to liquefy helium, using several precooling stages and the Hampson–Linde cycle based on the Joule–Thomson effect. This way he lowered the temperature to the boiling point of helium (−269 °C, 4.2 K). By reducing the pressure of the liquid helium he achieved a temperature near 1.5 K. These were the coldest temperatures achieved on earth at the time. The equipment employed is at the Boerhaave Museum in Leiden.
In 1911 Kamerlingh Onnes measured the electrical conductivity of pure metals (mercury, and later tin and lead) at very low temperatures. Some scientists, such as William Thomson (Lord Kelvin), believed that electrons flowing through a conductor would come to a complete halt or, in other words, metal resistivity would become infinitely large at absolute zero. Others, including Kamerlingh Onnes, felt that a conductor's electrical resistance would steadily decrease and drop to nil. Augustus Matthiessen pointed out when the temperature decreases, the metal conductivity usually improves or in other words, the electrical resistivity usually decreases with a decrease of temperature.
On 8 April 1911, Kamerlingh Onnes found that at 4.2 K the resistance in a solid mercury wire immersed in liquid helium suddenly vanished. He immediately realized the significance of the discovery (as became clear when his notebook was deciphered a century later). He reported that "Mercury has passed into a new state, which on account of its extraordinary electrical properties may be called the superconductive state". He published more articles about the phenomenon, initially referring to it as "supraconductivity" and, only later adopting the term "superconductivity".
Kamerlingh Onnes received widespread recognition for his work, including the 1913 Nobel Prize in Physics for (in the words of the committee) "his investigations on the properties of matter at low temperatures which led, inter alia, to the production of liquid helium".
Some of the instruments he devised for his experiments can be seen at the Boerhaave Museum in Leiden. The apparatus he used to first liquefy helium is on display in the lobby of the physics department at Leiden University, where the low-temperature lab is also named in his honor. His student and successor as director of the lab Willem Hendrik Keesom was the first person who was able to solidify helium, in 1926. The former Kamerlingh Onnes laboratory building is currently the Law Faculty at Leiden University and is known as "Kamerlingh Onnes Gebouw" (Kamerlingh Onnes Building), often shortened to "KOG". The current science faculty has a "Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratorium" named after him, as well as a plaque and several machines used by Kamerling Onnes in the main hall of the physics department.
The Kamerlingh Onnes Award was established in his honour, recognising further advances in low-temperature science.
The Onnes effect referring to the creeping of superfluid helium is named in his honor.
The crater Kamerlingh Onnes on the Moon is named after him.
Onnes is also credited with coining the word "enthalpy".
Onnes' discovery of superconductivity was named an IEEE Milestone in 2011.
Honors and awards
- Kamerlingh Onnes, H., "Nieuwe bewijzen voor de aswenteling der aarde." Ph.D. dissertation. Groningen, Netherlands, 1879.
- Kamerlingh Onnes, H., "Algemeene theorie der vloeistoffen." Amsterdam Akad. Verhandl; 21, 1881.
- Kamerlingh Onnes, H., "On the Cryogenic Laboratory at Leyden and on the Production of Very Low Temperature." Comm. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden; 14, 1894.
- Kamerlingh Onnes, H., "Théorie générale de l'état fluide." Haarlem Arch. Neerl.; 30, 1896.
- Kamerlingh Onnes, H., "Further experiments with liquid helium. C. On the change of electric resistance of pure metals at very low temperatures, etc. IV. The resistance of pure mercury at helium temperatures." Comm. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden; No. 120b, 1911.
- Kamerlingh Onnes, H., "Further experiments with liquid helium. D. On the change of electric resistance of pure metals at very low temperatures, etc. V. The disappearance of the resistance of mercury." Comm. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden; No. 122b, 1911.
- Kamerlingh Onnes, H., "Further experiments with liquid helium. G. On the electrical resistance of pure metals, etc. VI. On the sudden change in the rate at which the resistance of mercury disappears." Comm. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden; No. 124c, 1911.
- Kamerlingh Onnes, H., "On the Lowest Temperature Yet Obtained." Comm. Phys. Lab. Univ. Leiden; No. 159, 1922.
- ^Sengers, Johanna Levelt: How Fluids Unmix: Discoveries by the School of Van der Waals and Kamerlingh Onnes. (Edita-the Publishing House of the Royal, 2002, 318pp)
- ^van Delft, Dirk (2007) Freezing physics, Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and the quest for cold, Edita, Amsterdam, ISBN 9069845199.
- ^Blundell, Stephen: Superconductivity: A Very Short Introduction. (Oxford University Press, 1st edition, 2009, p. 20)
- ^ abcd"The Nobel Prize in Physics 1913: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes". Nobel Media AB. Retrieved 24 April 2012.
- ^"Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853 - 1926)". Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences. Retrieved 22 July 2015.
- ^Matthiessen, A.; von Bose, M. (1862). "On the Influence of Temperature on the Electric Conducting Power of Metals". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 152: 1–27. doi:10.1098/rstl.1862.0001.
- ^Matthiessen, A.; Vogt, C. (1864). "On the Influence of Temperature on the Electric Conducting-Power of Alloys". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. 154: 167–200. doi:10.1098/rstl.1864.0004.
- ^van Delft, Dirk; Kes, Peter (September 2010). "The Discovery of Superconductivity"(PDF). Physics Today. 63 (9): 38–43. Bibcode:2010PhT....63i..38V. doi:10.1063/1.3490499.
- ^Howard, Irmgard (2002). "H Is for Enthalpy, Thanks to Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and Alfred W. Porter". Journal of Chemical Education. ACS Publications. 79 (6): 697. Bibcode:2002JChEd..79..697H. doi:10.1021/ed079p697.
- ^"Milestones:List of IEEE Milestones". IEEE Global History Network. IEEE. Retrieved 29 July 2011.
- de Bruyn Ouboter, Rudolf (March 1997). "Heike Kamerlingh Onnes's Discovery of Superconductivity". Scientific American. 276 (3): 98–103. Bibcode:1997SciAm.276c..98D. doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0397-98.
- Laesecke, Arno (May–June 2002). "Through Measurement to Knowledge: The Inaugural Lecture of Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1882)"(PDF). Journal of Research of the National Institute of Standards and Technology. 107 (3): 261–277. doi:10.6028/jres.107.021.
- Reif-Acherman, Simón (June 2004). "Heike Kamerlingh Onnes: Master of Experimental Technique and Quantitative Research"(PDF). Physics in Perspective. 6 (2): 197–223. Bibcode:2004PhP.....6..197R. doi:10.1007/s00016-003-0193-8.
- Van Delft, D. "Freezing Physics: Heike Kamerlingh Onnes and the Quest for Cold"
- Levelt-Sengers, J. M. H., "How fluids unmix : discoveries by the School of Van der Waals and Kamerlingh Onnes". Amsterdam, Koninklijke Nederlandse Akademie van Wetenschappen, 2002. ISBN 90-6984-357-9.
- Kamerlingh Onnes, Heike, (Gavroglou, Kōstas. [ed.], and Goudaroulis, Yorgos [ed.]) "Through measurement to knowledge : the selected papers of Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (1853–1926)". Dordrecht, Boston, Kluwer Academic Publishers, c1991. Goudaroulis, Yorgos. ISBN 0-7923-0825-5
- International Institute of Refrigeration (First International Commission), "Rapports et communications issus du Laboratoire Kamerlingh Onnes". International Congress of Refrigeration (7th; 1936; La Hauge), Amsterdam, 1936.
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