Beginning the Proposal Process
As with writing a regular academic paper, research proposals are generally organized the same way throughout most social science disciplines. Proposals vary between ten and twenty-five pages in length. However, before you begin, read the assignment carefully and, if anything seems unclear, ask your professor whether there are any specific requirements for organizing and writing the proposal.
A good place to begin is to ask yourself a series of questions:
- What do I want to study?
- Why is the topic important?
- How is it significant within the subject areas covered in my class?
- What problems will it help solve?
- How does it build upon [and hopefully go beyond] research already conducted on the topic?
- What exactly should I plan to do, and can I get it done in the time available?
In general, a compelling research proposal should document your knowledge of the topic and demonstrate your enthusiasm for conducting the study. Approach it with the intention of leaving your readers feeling like--"Wow, that's an exciting idea and I can’t wait to see how it turns out!"
In general your proposal should include the following sections:
In the real world of higher education, a research proposal is most often written by scholars seeking grant funding for a research project or it's the first step in getting approval to write a doctoral dissertation. Even if this is just a course assignment, treat your introduction as the initial pitch of an idea or a thorough examination of the significance of a research problem. After reading the introduction, your readers should not only have an understanding of what you want to do, but they should also be able to gain a sense of your passion for the topic and be excited about the study's possible outcomes. Note that most proposals do not include an abstract [summary] before the introduction.
Think about your introduction as a narrative written in one to three paragraphs that succinctly answers the following four questions:
- What is the central research problem?
- What is the topic of study related to that problem?
- What methods should be used to analyze the research problem?
- Why is this important research, what is its significance, and why should someone reading the proposal care about the outcomes of the proposed study?
II. Background and Significance
This section can be melded into your introduction or you can create a separate section to help with the organization and narrative flow of your proposal. This is where you explain the context of your proposal and describe in detail why it's important. Approach writing this section with the thought that you can’t assume your readers will know as much about the research problem as you do. Note that this section is not an essay going over everything you have learned about the topic; instead, you must choose what is relevant to help explain the goals for your study.
To that end, while there are no hard and fast rules, you should attempt to address some or all of the following key points:
- State the research problem and give a more detailed explanation about the purpose of the study than what you stated in the introduction. This is particularly important if the problem is complex or multifaceted.
- Present the rationale of your proposed study and clearly indicate why it is worth doing. Answer the "So What? question [i.e., why should anyone care].
- Describe the major issues or problems to be addressed by your research. Be sure to note how your proposed study builds on previous assumptions about the research problem.
- Explain how you plan to go about conducting your research. Clearly identify the key sources you intend to use and explain how they will contribute to your analysis of the topic.
- Set the boundaries of your proposed research in order to provide a clear focus. Where appropriate, state not only what you will study, but what is excluded from the study.
- If necessary, provide definitions of key concepts or terms.
III. Literature Review
Connected to the background and significance of your study is a section of your proposal devoted to a more deliberate review and synthesis of prior studies related to the research problem under investigation. The purpose here is to place your project within the larger whole of what is currently being explored, while demonstrating to your readers that your work is original and innovative. Think about what questions other researchers have asked, what methods they have used, and what is your understanding of their findings and, where stated, their recommendations. Do not be afraid to challenge the conclusions of prior research. Assess what you believe is missing and state how previous research has failed to adequately examine the issue that your study addresses. For more information on writing literature reviews, GO HERE.
Since a literature review is information dense, it is crucial that this section is intelligently structured to enable a reader to grasp the key arguments underpinning your study in relation to that of other researchers. A good strategy is to break the literature into "conceptual categories" [themes] rather than systematically describing groups of materials one at a time. Note that conceptual categories generally reveal themselves after you have read most of the pertinent literature on your topic so adding new categories is an on-going process of discovery as you read more studies. How do you know you've covered the key conceptual categories underlying the research literature? Generally, you can have confidence that all of the significant conceptual categories have been identified if you start to see repetition in the conclusions or recommendations that are being made.
To help frame your proposal's literature review, here are the "five C’s" of writing a literature review:
- Cite, so as to keep the primary focus on the literature pertinent to your research problem.
- Compare the various arguments, theories, methodologies, and findings expressed in the literature: what do the authors agree on? Who applies similar approaches to analyzing the research problem?
- Contrast the various arguments, themes, methodologies, approaches, and controversies expressed in the literature: what are the major areas of disagreement, controversy, or debate?
- Critique the literature: Which arguments are more persuasive, and why? Which approaches, findings, methodologies seem most reliable, valid, or appropriate, and why? Pay attention to the verbs you use to describe what an author says/does [e.g., asserts, demonstrates, argues, etc.].
- Connect the literature to your own area of research and investigation: how does your own work draw upon, depart from, synthesize, or add a new perspective to what has been said in the literature?
IV. Research Design and Methods
This section must be well-written and logically organized because you are not actually doing the research, yet, your reader has to have confidence that it is worth pursuing. The reader will never have a study outcome from which to evaluate whether your methodological choices were the correct ones. Thus, the objective here is to convince the reader that your overall research design and methods of analysis will correctly address the problem and that the methods will provide the means to effectively interpret the potential results. Your design and methods should be unmistakably tied to the specific aims of your study.
Describe the overall research design by building upon and drawing examples from your review of the literature. Consider not only methods that other researchers have used but methods of data gathering that have not been used but perhaps could be. Be specific about the methodological approaches you plan to undertake to obtain information, the techniques you would use to analyze the data, and the tests of external validity to which you commit yourself [i.e., the trustworthiness by which you can generalize from your study to other people, places, events, and/or periods of time].
When describing the methods you will use, be sure to cover the following:
- Specify the research operations you will undertake and the way you will interpret the results of these operations in relation to the research problem. Don't just describe what you intend to achieve from applying the methods you choose, but state how you will spend your time while applying these methods [e.g., coding text from interviews to find statements about the need to change school curriculum; running a regression to determine if there is a relationship between campaign advertising on social media sites and election outcomes in Europe].
- Keep in mind that a methodology is not just a list of tasks; it is an argument as to why these tasks add up to the best way to investigate the research problem. This is an important point because the mere listing of tasks to be performed does not demonstrate that, collectively, they effectively address the research problem. Be sure you explain this.
- Anticipate and acknowledge any potential barriers and pitfalls in carrying out your research design and explain how you plan to address them. No method is perfect so you need to describe where you believe challenges may exist in obtaining data or accessing information. It's always better to acknowledge this than to have it brought up by your reader.
V. Preliminary Suppositions and Implications
Just because you don't have to actually conduct the study and analyze the results, it doesn't mean you can skip talking about the analytical process and potential implications. The purpose of this section is to argue how and in what ways you believe your research will refine, revise, or extend existing knowledge in the subject area under investigation. Depending on the aims and objectives of your study, describe how the anticipated results will impact future scholarly research, theory, practice, forms of interventions, or policymaking. Note that such discussions may have either substantive [a potential new policy], theoretical [a potential new understanding], or methodological [a potential new way of analyzing] significance.
When thinking about the potential implications of your study, ask the following questions:
- What might the results mean in regards to the theoretical framework that underpins the study?
- What suggestions for subsequent research could arise from the potential outcomes of the study?
- What will the results mean to practitioners in the natural settings of their workplace?
- Will the results influence programs, methods, and/or forms of intervention?
- How might the results contribute to the solution of social, economic, or other types of problems?
- Will the results influence policy decisions?
- In what way do individuals or groups benefit should your study be pursued?
- What will be improved or changed as a result of the proposed research?
- How will the results of the study be implemented, and what innovations will come about?
NOTE: This section should not delve into idle speculation, opinion, or be formulated on the basis of unclear evidence. The purpose is to reflect upon gaps or understudied areas of the current literature and describe how your proposed research contributes to a new understanding of the research problem should the study be implemented as designed.
The conclusion reiterates the importance or significance of your proposal and provides a brief summary of the entire study. This section should be only one or two paragraphs long, emphasizing why the research problem is worth investigating, why your research study is unique, and how it should advance existing knowledge.
Someone reading this section should come away with an understanding of:
- Why the study should be done,
- The specific purpose of the study and the research questions it attempts to answer,
- The decision to why the research design and methods used where chosen over other options,
- The potential implications emerging from your proposed study of the research problem, and
- A sense of how your study fits within the broader scholarship about the research problem.
As with any scholarly research paper, you must cite the sources you used in composing your proposal. In a standard research proposal, this section can take two forms, so consult with your professor about which one is preferred.
- References -- lists only the literature that you actually used or cited in your proposal.
- Bibliography -- lists everything you used or cited in your proposal, with additional citations to any key sources relevant to understanding the research problem.
In either case, this section should testify to the fact that you did enough preparatory work to make sure the project will complement and not duplicate the efforts of other researchers. Start a new page and use the heading "References" or "Bibliography" centered at the top of the page. Cited works should always use a standard format that follows the writing style advised by the discipline of your course [i.e., education=APA; history=Chicago, etc] or that is preferred by your professor. This section normally does not count towards the total page length of your research proposal.
Develop a Research Proposal: Writing the Proposal. Office of Library Information Services. Baltimore County Public Schools; Heath, M. Teresa Pereira and Caroline Tynan. “Crafting a Research Proposal.” The Marketing Review 10 (Summer 2010): 147-168; Jones, Mark. “Writing a Research Proposal.” In MasterClass in Geography Education: Transforming Teaching and Learning. Graham Butt, editor. (New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2015), pp. 113-127; Krathwohl, David R. How to Prepare a Dissertation Proposal: Suggestions for Students in Education and the Social and Behavioral Sciences. Syracuse, NY: Syracuse University Press, 2005; Procter, Margaret. The Academic Proposal. The Lab Report. University College Writing Centre. University of Toronto; Punch, Keith and Wayne McGowan. "Developing and Writing a Research Proposal." In From Postgraduate to Social Scientist: A Guide to Key Skills. Nigel Gilbert, ed. (Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, 2006), 59-81; Sanford, Keith. Information for Students: Writing a Research Proposal. Baylor University; Wong, Paul T. P. How to Write a Research Proposal. International Network on Personal Meaning. Trinity Western University; Writing Academic Proposals: Conferences, Articles, and Books. The Writing Lab and The OWL. Purdue University; Writing a Research Proposal. University Library. University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign.
Whether you choose a research paper, a paper based on an Academic Civic Engagement project, or a project that will produce something other than a 35-40 page paper (perhaps a creative project, a website, or something else), you must submit a proposal to the American Studies program in fall of senior year that will merit approval by the faculty. A comps proposal is a thoughtful, detailed plan, a road map that you anticipate following. Of course, you cannot know exactly where your exploration will take you and the proposal does not bind you to avenues of inquiry that you discover to be dead ends. However, a successful proposal does demonstrate that you have a good idea of possible routes and have anticipated potential potholes in the road and thought about how to avoid them.
A successful proposal will outline your topic and approach, will indicate that relevant evidence is available to you, and show that you have the requisite skills and abilities to make sense of the evidence you propose to use, whether it is textual, statistical, ethnographic, visual, etc. If you propose research involving human subjects (e.g. interviews or survey research), you must obtain permission from the Institutional Review Board (IRB) in advance; see Carleton's Institutional Review Board webpage and indicate in your proposal that you have consulted with the IRB and begun the formal process of gaining approval or exemption. If you anticipate a product other than a 35-40 page paper, please explain as fully as possible the final form you hope your project will take. Any good proposal will make a case that this comps is worth doing – that it will add to the scholarly conversation about your topic in some way and that it will be an appropriate culmination of your interdisciplinary American Studies major. You should work closely with your advisor, as well as the faculty leader of AmSt 399 and your peers, in developing your proposal.
The proposal should be typed and double-spaced, coherently organized, carefully written, and honest about areas that are not fully developed. Examples of successful proposals done by previous students in the program are available in the e-reserves section of the Gould Library page under AMST 400.
The preferred format of the proposal is as follows:
1) THE TOPIC
• Working Title: This should tell the reader the specific focus of the paper; it can also be clever. Your final title might be different.
• Explain in a paragraph or two why this topic is worth investigating. Be sure to define all your key terms.
2) THE RESEARCH QUESTION
• Narrow your focus from a broad interest and formulate a question about your topic. Posing two or three related questions might work well, but any more than that would likely be too many for a paper/project of this scope. You should pose questions that are answerable with information that you are confident will be available to you; you want to present a plan that is doable with the time and resources that you have. Articulate your working thesis if you have one.
3) SOURCES and METHODS
• What sources will you use? What is their nature? Where are they located? How will you gain access to them? What will constitute evidence for your argument / interpretation in your comps? Include reference to both primary and secondary sources. What sources do you think will be central to your paper / project, and what will you need to explore as background or context? This should be a description and not a list (that will come later, in the Bibliography), and should reflect the interdisciplinarity of your inquiry.
• What methods will you use to explore and analyze your sources? How will you gather or generate your information / evidence?
Be specific about describing different methods drawn from multiple disciplinary approaches, as appropriate. Give examples of the kind of inquiry you’ll pursue, to the extent that you can. For instance, if you plan to conduct interviews, include a list of questions you intend to ask as an appendix to your proposal. Similarly, if you plan to use information from a particular database, such as a census report or a Pew Research Survey, it would be helpful to include a sample page or two as an appendix, as well as a description in the methods section of how you’ll use such information. This is the place to indicate that you’ve started the Institutional Review Board (IRB) process of approval if your proposed research involves Human Subjects.
• This Sources and Methods section is important in assuring yourself, your advisor, and the American Studies faculty that your research plan is doable. Of course, your sources and methods may evolve and change as you do further research, thinking, and consultation with advisors.
4) THE CONVERSATION YOU’RE JOINING
• How do you anticipate that your work will fit with earlier research and analysis related to your topic? Describe the conversation you’ll be joining in undertaking this project – what are the debates? Whose work will you be building on? What bodies of knowledge will you add to? What interpretations do you expect to contradict or revise? This is an invitation to situate yourself in relevant scholarship – to provide a review of the relevant literature. Here you should move beyond what you’ve already said about SOURCES, and include evaluation and context. Likewise, this should be a narrative and not just a list (which you’ll include in the BIBLIOGRAPHY). What do you think you’ll contribute that’s new or different – e.g. are you looking at new sources, or a new combination of evidence, offering a new interpretation or new angle on the question? If you know of relevant theoretical framework(s) that you’ll use, include a description here.
• Exploring and analyzing the conversation(s) you’re joining in undertaking your comps will help you answer the ultimate “so what?” question about the significance of your work.
• List all the sources you’ve identified so far, whether or not you’ve already looked at them. Your bibliography should be divided into two sections, one for primary sources and the other for secondary sources. Within each, list items in alphabetical order by last name of author, and annotate the bibliography to indicate what you have read and what you have not yet read. Indicate why you think sources are promising and relevant, what they contain or what you think they contain.
• Successful proposals will (at this stage) include at least a dozen substantial sources of information, with annotations.
• American Studies uses Chicago Style formatting for notes and bibliography. Handbooks with examples are available in the Writing Center in the library; you could also consult the journal American Quarterly (available in paper copy in the library) to see articles using Chicago formatting. If you choose to use different Style conventions, please discuss with your advisor and explain in your proposal.
6) YOUR PREPARATION TO UNDERTAKE THIS COMPS
• How well-prepared are you to undertake this comps essay or project? List here the courses you have taken that have given you the background knowledge and tools you’ll need and explain how they’ve prepared you. Also, describe any extra-academic experience or training that has given you needed skills or relevant practice. Explain how this paper or project will be an appropriate capstone to YOUR intellectual journey through the American Studies major.
7) COMPS PROPOSAL COVER SHEET
• Download the American Studies Comps Proposal Cover Sheet, fill it out, and include it with your proposal. You must obtain the signature of your advisor on this sheet before turning it in. The signature of your advisor does not constitute approval from the program.
Comps Proposals are due electronically by 5pm on Tuesday of seventh week of fall term (October 24th, 2017) on the AMST Class of ’18 Moodle site. Seniors should make sure they have access to this site well before the due date. Any problems, contact firstname.lastname@example.org asap.