Pa Coursework Synonyms

* To compare top ranking PA schools and download your FREE  PA School Prerequisite Worksheetclick here

This post is part of my 5 steps to PA school series to go from zero to PA school hero:

  1. Complete thenecessary prerequisite coursework
  2. Obtain the required medical and hands-on patient care experience
  3. Successfully prepare for and take the GRE (or avoid it)
  4. Obtain at least 3 High-Quality Letters of Recommendation
  5. Complete the CASPA application Essay and all additional supplemental materials on time.

Today we are going to tackle STEP 1:

Identifying and Completing the Necessary Prerequisite Coursework

Is there a Perfect Undergraduate Course Curriculum to Get into PA School?

Upper division prerequisite requirements can be completed at a four-year institution, community college, or online courses from regionally accredited institutions. We do not look down on community college coursework. It will be factored in the same way - Penn State PA ProgramClick To Tweet

If you are serious about PA school these are just some of the questions you should be asking yourself:

  • What courses, if any, are considered standard prerequisite course requirements across many different PA schools?
  • What schools do I want to apply to?  Do they have special prerequisite course requirements in addition to the standard prerequisites I identified above?
  • What courses should I take that go above and beyond the required prerequisites that will help me to stand out to the PA school admissions committee?
  • What major should I choose that would allow me to complete all my prerequisite coursework and still have a career if I do not get into PA school or change my mind later?

Designing the Perfect Pre-PA School Course Curriculum to Get into any PA School

Let's start with the basics.

Prerequisite course requirements vary from school to school. That being said, there is a general curriculum that most PA schools require before matriculation.

Most programs will require at least:

  • One year of chemistry with labs*
  • One course each of human anatomy and physiology with labs
  • One course in microbiology with lab
  • One course in statistics
  • One course in psychology

*Schools can be very particular about which chemistry series they prefer.  It is important to consult websites of schools you are interested in, and then check with your academic adviser.

Other frequently required or recommended courses: 

  • general biology
  • genetics
  • organic chemistry
  • biochemistry
  • additional courses in social/behavioral sciences
  • languages (some schools require coursework in Spanish)
  • medical terminology
  • public speaking

My Undergraduate Pre-Physician Assistant Prerequisite Coursework

No more than two prerequisite courses can be outstanding at the time of application and they need to be done by the fall of the application year. - Case Western Reserve PA ProgramClick To Tweet

As a real-world example, I am going to show you my 4-year undergraduate course schedule at The University of Washington.

I was following a pre-medical track through the spring semester of my junior year. It was at this point that I spoke with an academic adviser about my career choice to be a Physician Assistant and changed majors (You will see this highlighted in yellow below).

I declared my new major in Zoology with a renewed focus on completing my pre-PA coursework. Leaving the pre-medical track opened up many options I had not previously had.  I was now able to take courses in genetics, physiology, biomechanics, and microbiology, among other courses, that both increased my GPA and strengthened my PA school application.

My PRE-PA prerequisite coursework

  1. Anatomy and Physiology
  2. Upper-level Biology - 1 year
  3. Cellular Biology elective
  4. Microbiology with lab
  5. Upper-Level General Chemistry with lab – 1 year (3 quarters)
  6. Upper-Level Organic Chemistry 2 quarters with a change to the short program my senior year.
  7. Upper-Level Physics with lab – 3 Quarters
  8. Genetics
  9. Math - Qualitative Science" Calculus – 2 quarters with 1 quarter of statistics
  10. Sociobiology
  11. Biomechanics
  12. Foreign Language - 1 year
  13. General and Abnormal Psychology
  14. English Composition

Here is a detailed breakdown of my 4 years at the University of Washington (based on a quarter system)

* Finding myself:  During my first quarter at the University of Washington, I joined a freshmen interest group (F.I.G) with a liberal arts focus.  I had hoped to join a "FIG" focused on pre-medical sciences but, in my typical "procrastinator" fashion, I signed up too late.  I spent my first quarter in college with a group of wonderful students and soon to be close friends. Although I knew I was going to pursue a degree in medicine from the start, this first quarter was not a wash. It gave me a strong supportive community of like-minded individuals and taught me that there was a world beyond the hard sciences. I then started winter quarter of my freshman year ready to tackle my medical prerequisites.

What courses are a "standard prerequisite" across many PA schools that I should take to increase my options come application time?

The goal of your undergraduate education in preparation for PA school is simple:  

  • Complete the necessary prerequisite coursework required to pursue your advanced degree as a Physician Assistant.
  • Enjoy the process of learning.
  • Avoid wasting time (and money) on courses that are unnecessary, that do not contribute directly to your primary objective or worse; prolong the time required to obtain your undergraduate degree (which will cost both time and money).

Although all PA schools have varying prerequisite coursework requirements, a systematic look into prerequisite requirements across many PA schools will reveal patterns that will help guide you.

The following table compares prerequisite course requirements from 10 different top ranking PA schools in the United States.

The 9 subjects highlighted in yellow represent common core requirements that you should pay attention to.

Overview of Physician Assistant Prerequisite Course Requirements by School (10 Top Ranking PA Schools)

Unless you are superhuman you must click on the image to view in full size or just (click here)

Key:        U = Upper Level Course          L = Lower Level Course          X = General requirement

What courses can I take that go above and beyond the required prerequisites that will help me to stand out as an applicant?

In the above table, you will notice there are lots of boxes marked "L" for "lower level".

You may be thinking "great, that make my life easy"!

But stop for a minute and look at George Washington University, which requires all "Upper Level" coursework.

I could spend the next 20 minutes giving you reasons why you should avoid the low-lying fruit, but I think you can probably figure this out for yourself.

The difference between Upper and Lower Level Courses:

Let's use one of my least favorite subjects, chemistry, as an example.

At the University of Washington (UW), the Chemistry department offers Chem 110 and Chem 120: Introduction to General Chemistry and Principles of Chemistry 1. At UW this would constitute "lower level" general chemistry.

If you were to take a look at the University course catalog you will see that there is another step above Chem 110 and Chem 120: General Chem 142, 152 and 162. This is a more advanced, 1-year general chemistry series with a lab component. It is required by pre-medical students and recommended for science and engineering majors.  This is the general chemistry I would recommend all serious PA school candidates take.

The same holds true for organic chemistry. In the course catalog, you will see Principles of Chemistry 2 and 3, Chem 220 and 220 - these are "lower level" courses.  I would suggest Chemistry 237-239 which are upper level.

There is lower level Biology 100 and a more advanced upper-level Biology 200 series.

Do you see a pattern? You will find this across most, if not all, course offerings at all major Universities and Community Colleges.

Not convinced? Here is just one example of why you should consider upper-level courses: 

My wife, who was pre-nursing, took all "lower level" science courses as a pre-nursing requirement.  This was based on recommendations made by her academic adviser with a pre-nursing focus. When it came time to apply to the UW School of Nursing (the number one nursing school in the country at the time) she was surprised to discover that her prerequisite coursework paled in comparison to many of her colleagues who had chosen all upper-level science courses.  To her boyfriend's dismay :-), she was not admitted into the UW School of Nursing and had to apply elsewhere. On a happy note, she was accepted to Seattle Pacific University's School of Nursing later that year!

If you do not, like my wife, you may regret it later!

Sample University Program Pre-PA Curriculum

We will accept humanities credits that are older than 5 years. Science credits must be taken within 5 years of applying. - Toro University PA ProgramClick To Tweet

The following is a sample from Boise State Universities designated Pre-PA School Program curriculum.

With the growth of the PA profession, there are now many Universities offering a focused Pre-PA School Program with a targeted curriculum designed to help you get into PA school.

You may find that the Universities offering such programs often have their own PA programs and will design their curriculum around their own PA program requirements.

That being said, I have found most of these programs to be well thought out and provide the majority of the prerequisite coursework required by PA schools nationwide.

What Major Should I Choose to Get into PA School?

The last question I will touch on briefly today is the question of picking your college Major.

PA schools are flexible in the choice of undergraduate major.

Like medical schools, they care that you do well in your major (as well as your prerequisite courses) and that it reflects your interests.

I have counseled students from all different academic backgrounds and majors. Everything from dance to the more common biochemistry.

If you have certain areas of academic weakness that is OK, as long as your performance reflects an upward trajectory and a passion for the profession.

When choosing a major, it is wise to also think about alternate future careers in the event that you change your mind, or are not admitted to a PA school.

It is also wise to consider a major that may help you obtain the necessary medical experience upon graduation in preparation to apply to PA school.

Common choices for obtaining medical experience often do not require a college degree.  To work as a phlebotomist as I did, an EMT or a CNA, for example, will require additional certification only. Alternatively, one could pursue a 4-year degree in nursing as an undergraduate, obtain the necessary PA school prerequisites prior to graduation, use this degree to work intensively in the field for 4-5 years gaining valuable medical experience and then apply to PA school.

OK, that is a lot of information but what is the perfect Pre-PA curriculum?

Hopefully, after reading this post you have a much better idea of how to approach your undergraduate studies. To design the perfect curriculum I have created a worksheet to help you accomplish this goal.

Here are some steps to consider:

  1. Make a list of the top 10 to 15 schools you would consider applying to. Go to the PAEA Program directory (which is now FREE Yeah!) and look up each school. Use the worksheet provided below to make a table of the required courses. Take special note of any "outliers" and decide if these courses are absolutely necessary to meet your application goals and if so, what are you going to do to address these prerequisites? Don't put this off until later! What if you aren't sure what PA schools you want to apply to? Start with a geographical preference and work from there. Even if you have a list of 15 random schools this will give you a good idea of what requirements you will need to satisfy.
  2. Where are you right now? This is going to help you build a timeline to complete the necessary prerequisite coursework. Take your worksheet and meet with an academic adviser at your University or the local Community College who can help you design a course curriculum that will meet your needs.
  3. Take upper-level courses. You can take the easy road and meet the minimum requirements, but I would avoid this if you can. From my own experience, and as you can see from the chart I created above, upper-level courses will not only give you more options come application time but will also make you much more competitive as an applicant.
  4. Focus on your education: You need to make your academic coursework your top priority. If you are going to work while attending school pay careful attention to how it is affecting your academics.  In my case, working part-time at the campus health center 2 hours a day, helped me focus and improved my academic performance. But this is not always the case. If you are a returning student, have a part-time or full-time job or if you are a parent, make sure to schedule time for your studies and make sure everyone else is on board.

The PRE-PA Prerequisite Worksheet

Click here to download your FREE PA Prerequisite Worksheet.

I will be back shortly to discuss number two: Obtaining the required medical and hands-on patient care experience, so stay tuned!

- Stephen Pasquini PA-C

View all posts in this series

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Rememberthat even though one school’s prerequisite list may look light compared to another’s, PA programs nationwide are highly competitive, and the coursework in the program will be quite rigorous.
Remember: If you fail to plan early and appropriately, you may find yourself frustrated, having to go back to take courses you missed and in greater debt later on.
The truth is: If you want to stand out while giving yourself the broadest options come application time TAKE UPPER-LEVEL COURSES.
Reach for the stars: Although upper-level courses may not be "required" I would recommend taking upper-level coursework across all major prerequisites if you want to be competitive and have the most options.
Hint: It doesn't matter what major you choose.  What matters is that your major reflect YOUR interests, that you have fulfilled the necessary prerequisite coursework and have excelled in them, that you have a passion for and absolute understanding of the PA profession.

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MARLENE SCHECHTER-CONNORS: Well, hello and welcome to the 10th mini module in a wonderful series that PaTTAN has put forth for you in hopes that you are continuing to improve your educational

interpreting skills. I know you are. I've seen it in action. And I hope that you feel as good about it as we do here at PaTTAN. And on behalf of the Department of Education, the Pennsylvania

Department of Education, and the Bureau of Special Ed, and PaTTAN, we thank you so much for your continue attendance--your continued attendance and participation in all of the mini modules and

joining us on this wonderful journey. Again, we will continue on our journey but in a different format in providing you with follow-up activities and resources so that we can continue our work

together. So once again I will have announcements regarding our Educational Interpreter Summer Institute and some other exciting endeavors that we will be offering for this spring and this summer. So

stay tuned. But without further ado, I want to once again and for the last time in our mini module series introduce Kevin Williams. And Kevin also would like to give you a personal thank you at this

time for the wonderful work that you have shared with us in helping our skills to improve. So without further ado in our Discourse Marking and Cohesion, I can see everything clearly now. Here is

Kevin Williams.


KEVIN WILLIAMS: Welcome back. Module 10. Holy cow. We've been on quite a lengthy journey, almost an academic coursework full of material, 20 hours worth of instruction. So for all of you who have

endured through all of this, welcome back again and thank you so much for your attention. And I am praying that you're taking this back and attempting to integrate the information that we've been

sharing with you. It's a real honor for me to be able to be with you all throughout this journey. And I was honored to be asked to present these. One of the things that we're lacking in our field of

educational interpreting is just information in a really kind of a synced form related to the unique work that you and I do. One of the things that I want to emphasize is that, you know, while I'm

talking about these theories and, you know, yes, I am honored to be the co-author of the EIPA and I want to acknowledge and thank my academic colleague, Dr. Brenda Schick. We've worked together

arduously to create that tool and it's really changing--we're hoping it's changing the quality of education for children in public school settings by motivating us with documented evidence of where

we need to improve our skills and then what is needed to produce a robust interpretation. But I want to thank you on behalf of deaf individuals. And many of you know that I am an individual who also

is--has hearing loss. And so your work is very important to the lives of students who are deaf and hard of hearing. And I want to thank you for your engagement in looking at your craft and in your

honest efforts to move that craft up to a higher level of accessibility. Today what we're--excuse me. Today what we're going to be talking about in our last module is basically this whole notion of

what discourse is all about. So all language in academic settings follows patterns. Those patterns are interchanged patterns where students are led through a journey or scaffolded up to higher levels

of comprehension. And discourse is something that is--in Linguistics is an area of specialized study all on to its own. What we're going to be looking at as educational interpreters is this, "How do

educators or how are educators trained to be build discourse in the classroom setting? What special paths do they walk to get content or to present content to students and to help those students join

with them on that educational path to greater, more breadth and depth comprehension?" So a big part of our job that I know is probably the most challenging thing is getting inside of the head of the

educator and really understanding the motivating reason why that discourse is taking place. I don't know about you but getting inside of my own head is scary enough. Getting inside of somebody else's

head can be pretty scary. But when we're doing translation work it is something that's absolutely imperative. So you heard me talk throughout this modules about being engaged in analysis. And more

recently in recent modules we've been talking about getting engaged in prediction. Well, what we're going to be talking about today is really looking at discourse with a sense of what educational

narrative templates are in existence and how those templates then are integrated by educators as they present lesson material to children. So just as if I'm using a map, if I know where I'm

going--first of all if I'm using a map, I've got to select the right state, then I have to find the location where I'm going, then I have to plot my journey. That's much what like education's all

about. I have to know what my end goal is and then in a sense we kind of work backwards. So the more we know what the end goal is and the vehicles of getting us to that end goal, the better we

here--are at producing an interpretation that has fluency. Excuse me. Not only fluency but has cohesion. I.e., that it hangs together. Okay? So a lot of our work may have all the grammaticality of

the utterance boundary. But boy, oh, boy, when you step back and say, "Gosh. Does this thing have what we frequently call shifts?" So think about driving your car. If you understand auto mechanics

you know that you can't start your car out in the highest gear. Your motor will not--doesn't have enough umph to start out. So if you've ever driven a stick and you've tried to start the car from a

dead standstill in any gear other than first gear, the car really has a difficult time getting rolling. All right. So what we know is, and you can listen to an engine, an engine will go [makes noise]

and to [makes noise]. Either you or your automatic transmission goes shift. And then what does it do? It goes [makes noise]. And it keeps building up to kind of an educational climax. Well, that's

what curricula does with kids. That's what lessons within a curricula should do. It gets their motors to rev. We kind of go back, we rev up again, we kind of go back. And so when you study discourse,

that's what we're going to be talking about today. What are those, if you will, rev patterns that happen within an educational setting? So let's take a moment to review our abstract so that we're all

on technically the same page. We're going to be talking about the scaffolding that educators use to impart instruction and content. So we're talking about how do we build along with that teacher.

Now, we--a big part of that, again, is knowing, "Gosh. Where is this teacher going? Do I have a sense--a blueprint?" So I use that analogy or that kind of metaphor earlier on in some of our modules

where we were talking about click, cut, paste, drag, glide, those kinds of things. The more I know about the blueprint of instruction, the better off I'm going to be at being able to render that

discourse. So what we're going to be talking about specifically today, if we can go back to the overhead one more time, on our handout, we're going to be talking about Discourse Mapping. How do we

talk about, "Where am I at? Am I in first gear? Am I in fourth gear?" All right? "Am I even on the interstate or did I take an exit and I'm sitting in at a rest stop somewhere?" We want to look at

what type of discourse terms are used--oops, I have a typo in my handout, are used to mark--in marking units of discourse and shifts in discourse. So what type of terminology is used? All right? Are

there words that demarcate the beginning and the ending of utterances? And, yes, there are. Of course there are. And then what other features or techniques these speakers use in shifting through

their discourse? So today what we're going to be doing is after we've really taken a more finite, we've moved--just as we talked in modules eight and nine about perspective, we've moved in and out in

showing our storytelling A Bump in the Night. We've move in and out with Cloudy with the Chance of Meatballs. What I've tried to do as we built these 10 modules is to move you in and out, a close up

look at language, back up look at discourse, close up look at language, back up look at discourse. So believe it or not, there's been kind of a method about this. So you might look at this and say,

"Well, why was this last?" Well, why we put this module as the very last module is these--you need to understand all of these other components but then have this last module because it's the lens

that you're going to start looking back at integrating all of these other features. So the focal point of our interpretation has to be based on the sense of what is the vehicle of discourse doing at

this particular time or what is its intent as implied or integrate--or used by the educator? So let's take a look at this slide. I know this is a question that I'm asking. Where am I? Now, I want to

draw your attention to--there are actually two pictures on this slide. Now, "Where am I?" Now, what I found was interesting, it says, "Preparing this talk." the longer I looked at this slide. So what

I would like for you to do is, either on your paper or at the screen, stare at the slide for a good 10, 12 seconds. I'm going to be quiet. The longer I stare at this from this perspective, what

I've--what I noticed, if I stared at it for a long time, the building started to sway. I begin to lose a sense of perception. I've realized where I was. But if I said to you, "Are--do you know where

you're at or do you feel lost?" Which term probably would be the most applicable at this point? If you were in a large city and this was your vantage point, how might you feel? Let's now take a look.

I'm going to switch perspectives and I'm going to ask the same question. Where am I? Now, if you happen to know geography well and cityscapes, some of you might be able to figure out what community

this is. All right? I'm going to tell you it's a large city. It's a large city on a body of water. I'm going to give you more information. The body of water is not salt water. It's fresh water. And

it's actually a large city in the Upper Midwest. So by giving this information, actually--ironically, the city happens to be Chicago. But what I'm going to be talking about, when we arrange discourse

the more I have a sense, just as we've talked about classifiers, of the broad intent of where we're going, the easier or the less stress I have than looking at the content in this kind of manner. If

I look at it this way, have you ever gotten lost? You just can't see your way out? I've gotten lost while I'm translating. Have you ever gotten lost in an academic course? It really, really is

frustrating. So what I know is, is that by enlarging good instruction, educators start with this more broad feature that give you all of the attributes of what they're going to be talking about. They

talk about expectations then they move you into a more finite form. Hanging out in this form is not fun. It's not fun for us as translators. And guess what? It's really not fun if you happen to be a

student viewing an interpretation at this close up and disjointed manner. And I look back here; I can see the patterns of urban development. Look at the slide. Can you not see the blocks? Can you see

a pattern of building design? Look at how the buildings on the left of this are shorter than the buildings on the right so that we see an overall architecture that's totally lost in this image as we

look at it. So what I know is good instruction needs to help students understand the academic architecture. Now, I'm going to go as far as say this, and listen to me, and if this gets into the hands

of regular educators, that's fine, and deaf educators as well. There are may be times when you are interpreting and you have some sense of a better sculpture or architecture or they're moving along

and the teacher's not putting that architecture in place but it could be there. I'm going to argue that if you can put visual scaffolding or organization or structure into that translation, D-O I-T.

It's not only limited to Nike. Do it. This is not a game about, "Let's let the deaf kids swim through this." "Well, I know. But hearing kids don't get any benefit." This is not the issue. Deaf kids

never get equal access. And I'm--as soon as we bring this to a close; let's just drive home this point, an interpreted education is not direct instruction. The quantity and quality of information

rendered even if you are an EIPA level 5 is less than what is being delivered and rendered in direct instruction for students that has access to the language of instruction in that--in that

community. So our--it's time to start saying, "How do I actively interface? How do I so actively interface that I actually may do some improvements to the formulation of that utterance? Now, wow,

that means I have to know academic structure. I have to know content. I have to be a fluent bilingual." So the serious issues that we need to address looking at interpreted education are based on the

degrees of our competency. So in talking with your PDE folks and other people across the United States, the next level of evaluation that we have to do to see if inclusion even work is to say this,

"If I give student X who happens to be deaf or hard of hearing, if I give this student optimal interpreted access to the classroom, what are that student's educational outcomes?" Because personally,

as I look at this, as I talk about the vehicle of inclusion for deaf and hard of hearing kids, it is not always the best fit. So we're moving in this state. And I cannot--you are blessed to be here

in this state that's very, very educationally--education and child-centered. We're moving towards how do we provide excellent in service delivery. So what we're going to be doing is, and I'm going to

go back to the theme, how I got on this jag was if you know that a visual schema can be imparted based on your knowledge of discourse design, curricular instructional design, put the--put the

structure in place. Help the child understand or the teen understand where they are at in the lesson not only at that moment but how that piece relates to a proceeding or a following piece to come.

What we know folks, and we've talked about this before but I want you to have it in some type of encapsulated academic form, is the type of language. Now, I'm not talking about the terms of language.

We've talked how about there are home or bix words and how they are kelp words, correct? So I can talk about--let's go back to the rainforest. Rainforest have strata or they have layer. Which one is

it? In an academic setting, we would talk about the strata that take place in a rainforest. Well, I'm at home. I--it might talk about the layers of blankets on my bed. I probably wouldn't talk about

the strata of blankets around my bed. All right? So what I know is that, "Wow. The vehicle--the lexical vehicle," now, look at my hands. This is that EIPA model. The lexical vehicle language that's

happening at home is different. But, wow, the pragmatic, the design of discourse and the implication of that design of import--in--of discourse between home and academic settings is very different.

So let's take a look at our slide and let me point out some of those variations between Social Speech and Academic Speech. One of the things that we're going to see on our slide, and if you can look

over here onto your slide--you may have difficulty seeing it but go ahead and read from your paper. We have this in print form. That in social--excuse me. In Social Speech settings, we're going to

see a wider variet--a wider variety of registers. So the type of language is going to swing back and forth. But generally, the centering register is going to be pretty casual. Now, in academic

settings, the registers tend to be higher and have lesser swings to them, unless there's a reporting about other types of language. And it's going to be more consultative. So the types--even the

prosody, the length of utterance, the types of utterances is different. Now, if you can come back to me; one of the things that I've been noticing, and I don't know where it's coming from in

interpreter education programs, but one of the things that I've seen lexically that really is a register variation or I think a violation, teachers in public school settings will frequently say,

"Okay. Tell me. Tell me about, blah, blah, blah." And what we're going to be--what we're going to be looking at is, wow, these--this is--this--we're going to go into an IRE, Initiation Response

Evaluation discussion here in a minute. But teachers basically dictate to students. It's not an option. They say, "Tell me blah, blah, blah, blah, blah." And as of late, I've been watching

interpreters render that phrase, "You tell to me with this sign." Now, this sign and tell me have very different pragmatic outcomes. This is a directive. This is a lesser directive. I still am

seeking information. So if your parents are saying, you know, "Okay. If you're going to go out to the baseball game, what I want you to know is, you know, let me know who you're hanging out with or

tell me--just let me know when you're going to get home?" which is different type of INFORM than TELL ME. This is a focus on I want specific information. All right? So there is a real significant

outcome that is represented in the type of request. All right? So, "Hey. If you're--if you're going to go out, would you let me know what time you're going to be home?" is very different than, "I

want you to tell me exactly when you're going to be home." Now, that's when a TELL ME phrase would be translated into a home setting. "You can go out but I want you to tell me when exactly will you

be home?" Which should be different than, "Just let me know when you're going to be home, okay?" You hear the different expectation in those two utterances. So let's go back and look at, wow, the

register of Social and Academic Speech is different because the outcome of those narratives are different. All right? There's going to be less exact reference. All right? So there's more ambiguity

just on the fact that at home we're kind of on the same page. We're thinking a lot. Have you ever just started talking and there are times when we do know what each other is saying but then there's

sometimes when we don't. All right? But that's a good case in point is that you know, we're talking in a much more spontaneous manner at home about things that tend to be here and now. But we're in

public education. We're talking about things that are guided by an external system of learning and we're trying to meet those goals. All right? So the referencing has to be much more exact because we

are trying to not only just talk in dyad, that instructor's talking in a broad audience form and is responsible for bringing that broad audience up to higher, higher levels of language use and

content. All right? Things that are representative of register. Let's look at the third bullet on each of these areas. Less exact in pronunciation and articulation. That's a good way of knowing

formal versus informal register. Next bullet down. The--and I've touched on this earlier, the interactions have different values as far as outcomes. There are expectations but one of the things that

is very different now--listen to me here. One of the things that is very, very different is that in academic settings, in academic structures and environments, almost every narrative interchange

between student and educator has a sanction or a judgment placed on it. The teachers constantly grooming the classroom, quaffing the content. They're constantly evaluating what's happening. They're

not only evaluating but as the student--the student is evaluating pure to pure to pure to pure response because kids are jockeying for social and academic status and the other thing is acceptance in

the classroom. So the more I comply, the higher degree of acceptance I have. And there's a real strong reward factor that motivates kids, especially young kids. That's why they sound like chattering

little monkeys. When they, "Oh. I know. I know. I know." They're not only vying for the gold star of right content. They're vying for the gold star of acceptance and affinity between themselves as a

learner and the educator. That's very different than what happens in kind of home settings. There are expectancies in outcomes but there's just not the same degree of judgment about the vehicle of

utterance. Now, I'm talking now only about content. I'm talking about the vehicle that it--that is used. So the other last point that I want to point out, the real difference is there's an imbalance

of power in home settings and in academic settings. In home settings, as long we are all functioning in an expected and congruent manner, we use much more chummy talk. All right? We don't threaten

one another. That's in healthy homes. Now, there's some really, really interesting studies going on by Schleper, Grill and other people who are looking at social language issues or socialness and how

it affects cognition and language structure. But in healthy homes where people are staying within the parameters of what's expected within that home, the level and the camaraderie of talk is fairly

equal. There's mentoring that's going on, yes. But it's pretty--it's pretty chummy. Stop and think about, you know, when everything's good and you're hanging out with your kids in the car and you're

just talking about stuff. You're just--you're just talking about stuff. In the classroom setting, the type of vehicle of delivery--of communication is different. It--very--you'll hang around the

house and shoot the bow with your kids. I hope. You got to make home a cozy place. Parallel or conversely looking at public education, it's pretty rare that you get the instructor just to sit down

and...because of the status that's going on and the judgment and the values that that educator has to make on keeping that relationship as the guide mentor. So one of the things that we have to look at

is, wow, the expectations of language. The function of language is very different in social versus academic settings. And so when I talk to interpreter educators or when I talk to people at a

national level about why is educational interpreting so different, wow, this is a really big issue. I have to totally understand that I'm an academic agent. That's going to impact my behavior. That's

going to impact my predictions about the text. That's going to impact my delivery of interpretation, the register and the articulation that I use. So there's--there are frequently--I can tell you,

it's really evident when an interpreter is very much accustomed to doing a dull--a level type interpretation. But then they also do some work in public school settings. I can generally, when we're

evaluating, spot that interpreter right off because just their approach to the engagement with academic language is much more at a social adult register than in the academic student-learner register.

So what we want to talk about, and the whole point of this long monologue is that languages are different in these two settings, how they function is going to be different. Now, let's remember that

communication is never without intent. And I've just given you some linguistic jargony things because I want you to have this in kind of a coursework method of instruction for your own further

learning when you talk about language and the functional features of what we're going to call utterance structure. So utterances are basically--they can be phrases or sentences. All right? They are

how you and I--the vehicle that we use to communicate. Basically, they are a locutionary, illocutionary, and perlocutionary. So basically when I'm communicating with you in a locutional reference

means what I'm talking about. Illocution is what do I want that phrase to do. So I may use things like prosody. But I am also--illocutionary things says what are my status related to you and what are

the outcomes that I want and the perlocutionary is what then is the action that that phrase generates. What did it cause to take place? So let's take a look at this next phrase. If you're talking

with the student and, yes, you have a right to talk directly to students in the classrooms and you use this phrase. "You stole this pen." All right? Let's go through this. I mean, the vehicle of

instruction is you're describing an event. So let's go back to our slide. Locutionary, the focus is what? You're describing the event. And there's going to be, "Yes, I did." or "No, I didn't."

Probably it's going to be, "No, I didn't." even though if he did. Then what we're going to look at, the illocutionary force is when I render this, "You stole his pen." who has the power in this

situation? You're the educational interpreter in the class and you are confronting a student, deaf or hearing, who has done an act that's incongruent with the academics setting. Who has the power?

All right? So the illocutionary force if you will, let me go back to the slide. All right? Your status is as an adult professional. All right? Now, the perlocutionary force is what? The kid's going

to either fess up. They're going to go into denial but there are also maybe affective things like shock, anger, disappointment. All right? So what we see happening in utterance and in exchanges have

you--have--ever had somebody says something to you? Let's go back so that I can drive home this perlocutionary force. Have you ever been in a situation where you've had somebody say something to you

with the sole intent to have some type of an affective response? Now, have you ever been involved in a counseling situation or you've ever been dealing with somebody who has had escalative behaviors?

There are times when phrases are used to burst the bubble and just to crumble walls. All right? So that would be a good way for us to kind of think about the perlocutionary force. What's the effect

that speakers has? So sometimes kids have to be disarmed, I don't mean literally. Let's hope not literally. But at times we have to tear down those walls. So there are times that, you know, teachers

or people that are the adult mentors in that environment will say things to them to "Bring them down a few notches." So the whole vehicle of narration follows these types of functions. We've got

locutionary, illocutionary and perlocutionary effect on kids. All right? Now, as we look at our slide, the emphasis, when you and I are doing discourse analysis is an--what is the talk doing and

achieving? We spend--because of our backasswardness in training we spend too--way too much time in thinking about what are the words for the phrase when we've got to get our head wrapped around,

"What--what's the talk doing and what is the expected achievement of this utterance? Now, when we get our head wrapped around those as the beginning port of the narration, then our interpretations

can begin to make sense. So there are times that if I understand what the talk is doing and the expected achievement and I'm having trouble at the lexical level with some of the terms; I can better

distill or paraphrase or restructure and have an accurate interpretation versus what we see frequently happening is a rendering of sign salad. So what we're trying to do with this module is to get us

to back up and think about here in this uttering structure what's happening? Why is it happening? What's the motivating reason behind that? Let's look at this next slide. And again, I apologize if

the colors are little bit too hot for the transmission. But look at your handout. You'll still be able to read them. Let's look at the difference just in the Social Speech act. This is going to drive

home the variation between home and school. At home, mom says, "Hey. What time is it honey?" Child says, "Oh. It's about 5 after three." Mom says, "Thanks, dear." Now, let's go into the academic

environment. "Okay. Who can tell me what this clock says?" "It says three-o-six, or six minutes after." Teacher says "After...?" Student says, "Six minutes after three." Teacher says, "Oh. Correct." So

what's happening is a very different form and function of language. Is the teacher looking necessarily for the correct time? Yes. But are they also not looking at the form of articulation of

response? Yes. Is there a sanction if the response isn't quite correct? Yes. All right? So as we work in educational settings, what we have to know is, wow, everything that this teacher is volleying

off out of their mouth has an expected outcome and a potential. Now, the word sanction is a synonym for sanction is punishment. All right? What I'm talking about is there is an expected outcome that

has merit by the recipient of that narrative structure. I.e., if I don't get it or if I do it wrong, something's going to happen to me. Now, if I said to you today, "Guess what? In order for you to

get credit for attending module 10 you're going to have to pay--you're going to have to take a test." I can guarantee you that you're paying attention strategies probably would increase significantly

if I said that there was a sanction if you didn't comprehend the material that I was saying. All right. So what we know is we look back at--we've used this slide in earlier talk, is that when you and

I use language, we do it in a very, very patterned manner. And a really highly significant feature of helping to direct focus is using contrasts. Helping us to see boundaries and patterns are

highlighted by us using contrast or shifts. So let's go back to the notion of the transmission. If I don't have in that transmission contrasting gears, the motor will not have the same degree of

efficiency and speed. All right? So basically if you tear apart a transmission, you're going to see that these gears are different sizes. The teeth on the gears are different sizes. But what they do

is they allow that motor in using the contrasting gears to move to faster and faster processing ability or functioning ability. So if you--if you--have you ever, like, been in a car and it's down in

first gear and you floor it? Wow. If you have a tachometer, that motor's going [makes noise]. All right? Now, if you--if you get in the car and you start it up and you happen to have a tachometer and

you push your accelerator down, you can get that motor to go about, oh, gosh, three, four thousand rpms. It'll blip up and down. So if you're a car person, try that, rev it up. But then the next time

when you get on the interstate and you're driving along, look at your tachometer and look at the speed. Most cars are probably running at about 2500 to 3000 rpm and you're driving hopefully not more

than 75 miles an hour if that's your posted speed limit. And hopefully you're not doing that in the 35. All right? But if--as you look at that, wow, from one extreme of I'm revving and I'm not using

this in the sense--the contrast of moving gears. I'm sitting still. If I use these contrasting gears and I shift up, I've got a vehicle that's moving now at 75 miles an hour. So what we're going to

be looking at is how do we see those rev factors? How do we know? And it's--it's really what--we use this term when we're evaluating. We call it shifting. How do I know? Can I see that the

interpreter is shifting gears with that teacher? Often times I'm seeing stuff but that motor's revving and revving, revving but I'm not seeing [makes noise] those kinds of shift patterns that allow.

So if you are shifting along, if you do a stick shift and you shift too quickly, the motor has problems. If you--you can always, almost always feel in the transmission that bit of a [makes noise]

that [makes noise] is when the contrast gear kicks in. All right? It allows the motor to idle back a little bit then pick up more than you ever wanted to know about auto mechanics, I'm sure. All

right. We talked about the work generated by a man by the name of Bloom. And I'm not going to go into this during this discussion. I have, though, given you the information about Blooms Developmental

Taxonomy in very--in slides of this talk so that you can check this out yourself. But what we know is, wow, kids academic abilities mature overtime. And they start at learning very minor particles to

moving up to being able to evaluate, to tear things apart, to reconstruct them. All right. So what we know is that developmentally, curricula are built around this type of scaffold. So that's the

first level of awareness. When we're doing discourses, where am I in the educational setting? What vehicles of instruction will be used while I'm teaching here? So if I'm dealing with little kids,

I'm probably not going to use the academic vehicle of allegory or, "Okay. Let's--suppose we," you know, some of these more higher order thinking skills. So what I've got to do is, okay, let's look at

where our content is and what are the expectations of the learner in the setting. Now, your state has got an incredibly rich site, and this is in our handout, but the Pennsylvania Department of

Education. So that's So that's in your handout, www.pde.state, It's in your handout. Go to that site because it's going to lead you to information that talks about the

curricula at this level is built on these kinds of things. So it's going to give you the expectations of that. But as you think about Bloom, it's also going to give you a scent--sense about, "Oh.

This is why the material is designed the way that it is." And based on what Bloom is talking about, there are certain ways of talking about the curricula or the content that are going to be apparent

in those levels of instruction. So what I would encourage you to do, this is a whole--this is an academic discourse, graduate-level kind of activity, get out there, become familiar with Bloom. And

the reason why this is, is I know that teachers go through this. So the educator you're working with in the classroom, if you talk about Blooms Taxonomy, they're going to go, "Oh, yeah, yeah, yeah,

yeah." And you're going to be able to say, "Well, the type of your instruction that you're using may be calling for a synthesis and your deaf students really still kind of struggling within

application level of productive use of language in cognition. And it helped that educator to go, "Okay. Wow. That's where this kid is in my classroom? That's really helpful information. Let me

re-stylize speech for that child or let me help you." So learning to talk with the educator about what's happening just with the vehicle of instruction is an incredibly important thing. If you know

me, you know that I really like the work or Escher. And let's take a look at this next piece of art. Okay. Let's look at it. Tell me if you had to use one descriptive term to talk about this piece of

art. And if it's a descriptive language, you're going to be using an adjective. What adjective would you use to describe this piece of art? Terms that you might think about would be unsettling. We

can leave it on. Let's just take a look. It might be--you--that work might be disturbing. It might be unsettling. It might be disorienting or confusing. It's definitely unique. But is it realistic?

Is the organization realistic? No. So if we come back to me, what's--what I know is, wow, what Escher--what makes his work very interesting to us is he plays with what we're going to call

perspective. Now, unbeknownst to Mar--while we are watching this, Marlene sitting just off to my right helping to run all these gear and when that slide came up, I kind of purposefully was watching

her eyes and head and she was doing this. She was trying to gain what I'm going to call orientation to the piece of artwork because if we go back to this, let's look at it again. What we know is,

wow, look at the orientation of some of the figures on this piece of art. They simply--they can't be right? They don't make sense. Now, I know, some people would absolutely hate Escher because his

work dries some bananas. It's just very, very disturbing to them, all right, because it's almost the definition of chaos. It doesn't make order, so let's start and think about this notion that in

speech, it's especially in academic language, it is unquestionable. If the goal of academic instruction is for students to comprehend and scaffold, it is unquestionable to render something that

doesn't have some type of succinct comprehensible and realistic form of design to it, so what t I know is the fact that confusing or unorganized structures, what I call discourse disorientation, so

let's look at our slide. Discourse disorientation and if you look up what to be disoriented means it says I'm unable to find the way or a place to go. I'm lost and synonym's lost, stray or astray

versus--let's look at when you and I orient with, not the orient express but when you and I are in orient or we orient with and have discourse orientation, we align or position--now, let's look at

the first definition to align opposition with respect to a point or system of reference. Basically, what we're saying is we're building to a scaffolded point. We have a location. We're building to

that location, all right? Now, next bullet, to make familiar with or adjusted to facts principles or a situation. So what we do with in discourses, we build to a point what we use--what we're going

to call parallel structures at times to help us to move understanding that content, all right? So we learn lastly to focus on the concerns or interests of a specific group. So then again, we have a

synergy, we have a location that we are being directed towards, we are being guided. So what we're going to be talking about in this whole notion is discourse orientation. Can we provide that type of

support that gives the patterns that we need? Now, what we--in looking at discourse design, if we can take a look at our next slide, we've been talking about preattentive processing. Now, a lot with

this information that I've been sharing with you throughout this module--throughout these modules I gleamed from an instructional tech--kind of an instructional book on how to design picked oral

educational imagery, all right? So how do I do instructional message design whether it would be lexical or whether it would be somewhat more iconic? So what we have talked about in perception is our

brain likes to take things and bucket them together and then we try to make a scaffold and build--and build more upon a time--upon those previous learned notions, all right? Now, what we're going to

be thinking about is the course or the discourse that we're rendering. What are the elements that the educator want to mark as being critical, so that as we move through these, we move through all of

the content but we also provide a shifted pattern of perception as we move more and more to the key point. All right, I'm going to hop over a few of these slides. Let's--in our handout, let's go to

the slide in your handout that's talking about Grice's Cooperative Principle or Social Language Literacy. What we know about language--now, we've talked about--if you talk about literacy in public

school settings, literacy tends to mean learning how to read and write. That's what--that's what educators are going to talk about. Now, what other people are talking about in literacy is not only

academic content literacy but it's also social literacy, knowing in settings how to use your language. Now, what I'm going to also say is that there's content literacy, reading and writing skills.

There's social literacy about how to use your language outside of classrooms and variety of settings but I'm also--I also note that there's academic language literacy about knowing the patterns to

use in a classroom setting, so let's think for just a second about the teacher asking the student about what time it is. That student in the second response said, "Oh, oh." They're looking for such

and such a pattern of a response and when they use the formula, there's a good word for us to think about, it's the formulate response of educational discourse. All right, so what we know is that

we're going to be using a variety of expressions used based upon those settings and so there's a reciprocity, there's an expectation and we won't go into this in depth but there's an individual by

the name of Grice who's looked at some of these social settings. So, for example, my significant other's name is Andrew and his last name is Tay. Now, if how you get that out of DD, let's go back to

our handout, Mar, if we can. So if you look in the middle of that first paragraph, Andrew is a substitute teacher at times and so there are variety of ways that he could be addressed. Mr. Tay, if you

will. Mr. Tay is going to be in his academic. Andrew Tay maybe the approach used by a supervisor to him. Now, when we get out of that setting, his family calls him Andy. Now, I can't call him Andy,

all right? I call him Andrew and I got it listed Andy Tay or Andrew or Andy, or I use--I have a pet name for him because everybody pronounces his name incorrectly, TD. Hey, TD, what's up? All right.

Now, in the cooperative principle, what I know is, wow, there are expected ways to approach individuals based on settings. Now, if his mom or dad called him TD, I'd go, "Whoa." If a kid in public

school called him TD, we'd have a real problem, so what I'm--what I'm trying to drive home is that, there are expectations of the vehicle of communication that aren't only lexical but they are also a

phrasal structural in how kids interact in those setting and a big part of developing overall academic literacy and social literacy is mastering the formula of academic instruction. All right, so

basically, the whole point that I've been trying to make in all of these Gobbledygook of theory is, wow, academic language is an odd duck. In general translation work, when you and I are working in

settings, what I've--what I've been told in my instruction as a community-based interpreter many years ago and currently but in my training years ago, people would say, "Okay. You listen to the--you

listen to the source message, you strip away the form and you render it in the target message--in the target language." Excuse me. So you listen to the source message or you watch the source message,

you strip away the form and you render it in the targeted language. Now, one of the things that's incredibly unique about interpreting in educational settings is there's almost array of time that we

can strip away the form. That vehicle of instruction is being postulated that way on purpose. Now, Mar and I were talking the other day about, you know, when people take their EIPA and if they pick

the ASL version, what does that look like? Well, I'll to tell you, you know. If you're taking the ASL version of the test, your interpretation is still going to shift towards the more English syntax

by virtue of the requirement at that specific or those specific times during the test because there's very few times throughout the test which is real life classrooms, which is real life academics,

which is real life expectations of kids that that educator isn't drawing those kids's attention to the form of instruction. There are times--there are times but the degree of attention flashlight

focused on form is very, very significant, so let's take a look at this slide that's headed or titled, "Teachers and Speech Act." When educators are engaged with students in their classroom, bless

your hearts, you've been on ten modules of me telling you a bunch of information, all right. There had been not a lot of time but just by virtue of how we've encapsulated these and we're using them

for broadcast, there isn't a lot of time for interchange for us to sit down and then talk about those ideas and that's not good education quite frankly, so that's why what we want to do with the next

level is to go through integration units where we have a chance for you to integrate and to massage that content. So what I know is, is that when teachers teach, as we have seen in the first bullet,

they're presenting content but they're also on a fishing expedition. They are putting stuff out there for students. They're modeling formulations but they're asking then requests for response in

order for the instructor or in order for them to make judgments based upon the outcomes of that utterance. Okay, so Cazden, there's a great book in the second bullet in the slide is from Courtney B.

Cazden, so if you don't have this--actually, it says Cazden B., it should be Cazden C. It's Courtney B. Cazden, so Cazden calls these sign calls that teachers' embark upon as Initiation Response

Evaluation Cycles or IRE Cycles, so they'll start. So let's look within initiation, they start with the topic framing. Now, I've included words that we've used throughout these modules like hook,

book, look, and took. Do you remember that? Hook is like, "There's the topic." Book is like, "Let me drag you in to the text so that you can get a chance to kind of think about the techno stuff."

Look is, "How do I apply it?" Took is, "What are you taking home?" So what we've been doing in these modules is we've been--I've been trying to do a lot of hook work. We've been doing a ton of book

work. Now, what's lacking in the modules to date are--is the look. We need to get more of that information support for you which is coming and then the took what are you going to be taking home. So

now, what I know is the more application that I can give you, the more your take home is going to be and the more integrated that learning is. So what has to happen first of all is teachers initiate

so they give you a frame, they start talking, then they will value off a question, so to give you the opening stuff [makes noise] and then they're going to ask you something about that to make a

valued judgment or to add to, all right. So then the student responds, so student is attempting an accurate response to the initiation and the students--remember what I said, the students are

vying--sorry, there's a misspelling there. They're buying for--favorable review of the response, all right. So literally, don't you and I react well with positive strokes? I know I do. When I get a

good pat on the head or a good job, my choir director in college used to say, that's like saying second to a bulldog, all right. So they're looking for the, "Yeah, yeah, yeah, you did it." So when

the student responds to the teachers focusing on a response based on the initiation and they are looking at that student's content and form. So we see that in the evaluation component on your slide,

all right. So IREs, in the last point if we look--if you look on your handout and if we look up at the screen, IREs, Initiation Response Evaluation cycles are used in spoken and in print form, all

right. So I've just given you a good sense of this in narrative form. So, you know, I might say something like, "Wow, you know, I'm really, really excited about the upcoming Olympic Games. I really

think that there are good opportunities." Maybe--let me back up, stop, we're in social studies class, this is going to be an upper level high school social studies class. Well, you know, I'm really

excited about the world games that are going to be on. We've got the Olympics, we've got countries competing together. We've got camaraderie going on but, you know, I have to just say I have a little

bit of trouble with Iraq being engaged in some of these winter games and I might go off on that and then I might say, "So what do you think about Iraq being involved? [makes noise] So all of a

sudden, I'm just--I'm fishing. I've set up a scenario. I've given you a sense of what I think about it. Now, I maybe bating you in the sense or I may actually be giving you a real life feel--a real

life sense. Now, you've been in that situation where it's like, "Are you pulling my leg or is this serious?" All right. But I'm bating, I want a response, so what do you think? Your response is based

upon that initiation and your perception of the outcome of what that person wants, all right. And then when you do have a response, there's some type of an evaluation, all right. So if I'm asking you

to be in agreement with me, most of the time, what happens is you see people going to the compliance mode, all right. And then they get the positive stroke, so basically, IREs--I'm just giving you an

example--that IREs are basic--are also part of print text, so for example, storytelling problems. We've got this type of a scenario, we've got the initiation then there is--make the correct

assessment, your response and then of course there's the judgment of the evaluation of or of the grading of the test. So let's start and think about--we've talked about the content exists based upon

Bloom's taxonomy, different levels that students or the teachers use a variety of different discourse structures to engage students to bring about responses but let's look at--I've kind of noticed

since I've been working as an educational interpreter that teachers have basically two styles of how they present information and I've heard this talk about also as in the difference in discourse

between ASL and English, right? Where--and here's where we're going. Okay, let's just talk about this, so some teachers--what I call mountain climbing--all right, mountain climbing or climbing up the

mountain, so let's get rid of the first mountain. Climbing up the mountain, so we have a building up of information, okay. And we start with the base then we build up, we build intensities, severity,

complexity. The sequencing is generally in a specific order and it leads to a climactic point which is generally followed by an overall summary statement, so here's--here's the way that we can talk

about this if we can come back and look at this, so it's like here it is [makes noise] Then we step back and go so [makes noise] so way some teachers teach is [makes noise] They have synergy. They

have cohesion. Bam, that's where I'm going with this point. That's one type of discourse that I see prevalent in education. Now, there are also--there is also the sister type of discourse, so instead

of climbing up the mountain, we start with the mountain top and then we begin to enunciate the subordinate points. Now, what I've noticed is that when we do the [makes noise] Generally speaking, the

cadence of those utterance as far as the sequential order seems to be less ardently followed then the building or the scaffolding that comes from building up to the mountain top, so a lot of times

when I'm watching and I'm listening first, "Okay. Where's the point?" Really? And so have you been--have you ever been hanging with the teacher? And you're like wondering like Moses in the wilderness

[makes noise] they probably are working in the climbing up the mountain strategy. Now, I'll just tell you there are times that I've been the speaker, and Lord I hope it's not during this module, but

there have been times when I've been speaking that I know people think, "What in the world? Where are we going at this stuff?" All right? Now, imagine if I were translating that. I would be

delivering the same degree of ambiguity. Now, somewhat arguing, "Yeah, that's big--that's right. You know, everyone else's loss. Why--you know, why is it somebody not be lost?" Well, I'm just going

to argue that in translation work there's a high degree of ambiguity in time. So one of the things that I know that if when I'm translating and I'm working with somebody that is wandering around, it

really helps me to know where they're going. So again we've been talking about knowing what these educational outcomes are if I know where they're going I can help that wandering have some type of

structure to build to a point, all right. So in cognition, what I know is, wow, if I talk about incognition it's easier for us to think about this point [makes noise] but in more advance thinking,

what tends to happen is this wandering around that leads us to, bam, this type of discourse. So literally what I'm kind of getting the sense in division is that the rappelling down the mountain point

[makes noise] elementary settings tend to--you'll have that kind of discourse. In secondary settings, we have a much more wandering style of getting information across, that's not always the case.

I'm talking in pretty broad way but when I'm listening I'm listening for it, "Okay. What's the structure? How do I--do I follow the structure that's being used or the discourse style? How do I help

that discourse to be clear?" All right, so here's a--here's a bit of homework for you and I've got a text. Let's take a look at this sample text. Let's look at--let's just look at--I want you to just

listen to me first of all. Let me read it to you. Suppose you want to put together a new model sailboat, can you understand the instructions on the box? Do you know the steps? Can you explain clearly

to someone else how to put the model together? Or perhaps you know the way to a pond where you can sail your ship. Now, what do you predict is going to be the overall focus of that discourse? Now,

it's in the next sentence but let's go back again. Listen to me. Supposed you want to put together a new model sailboat, can you understand the instructions on the box? Do you know the steps? Can you

explain clearly to someone else how to put the model together? Perhaps you know the way to a pond where you can sail your ship. Now, I've added there what is the topic? So can you give clear

directions to a friend who wants to meet you there? There is in a sense in this kind of setting we've been building [makes noise] the point is, can you give these types of instructions or directions?

All right, so we can see in a sense how discourse is organized to lead us to, if you will, a punch point. So as we are listening to discourse, I'm thinking about, "Where is this going? Where is this

going? Where is this going?" And I am looking for clues. I'm looking for direction signs. Let's think about, "Have you ever been lost on the Interstate? And man it bugs me when I'm driving along and

I'm in question if I'm on the right leg, so I recently drove from Nebraska down to Florida and there was park--I used MapQuest [makes noise] and I got on this journey and I'm driving along and I'm

like, "Am I on the right road? Am I on the right road?" And I waited and I waited and I waited until finally I saw a marker that indicated which route I was on and I went [makes noise] well, I have

to tell you the time for me going [makes noise] to the time of me finding that marker was really, really unpleasant. I was lost, all right. What I want to be able to do as the translator is make sure

that as I'm building I know where we're going with this, so that I can use the right markers that help that student, "Okay. Yeah, I'm not lost. I'm with it. We're going. This is building. This is

building. This is building." So if I said something like this, let's reread this text. Let's look at this. I'm going to read it with kind of a climactic type style and then I'm going to strip that

away, appropriate reading. Suppose you want to put--to put together, start again. Suppose you want to put together a new model sailboat, can you understand the instructions on the box? Do you know

the steps? Can you explain clearly to someone else how to put the model together? Perhaps you know the way to a pond where you can sail your ship. All right, now, I've used vocal intonation cadence

of pattern that should help you to say, "Wow, there is a correlation here. I'm building to something. Let me take that away." Suppose you want to put together a new model sailboat, can you understand

the instructions on the box? Do you know the steps? Can you explain clearly to someone else how to put the sailboat--how to put the model together? Perhaps you know the way to a pond where you can

sail your ship. I get no sense of where that discourse is building or where it's going, so as we look at discourse, part of it is knowing the scaffolding, part of it is paying attention to the

prosodic information and part of it is knowing what the expected outcome is? All right, so we've talked about engaged in lessons. Teachers use these Initiation Response Evaluations, all right. So we

know that they use specific tones. We know that teachers use specific forms of instruction when they are delivering intent or content to students. Let's look at this next slide though that talks

about how teachers learn to develop a lesson, all right. This is definitely what we're going to be talking about, the hook, book, look, took. So based upon where students are blooms their knowledge

based upon the educational content constraints that they have which you can get from the PVE website. Their training says, "Use this template in order to build a good lesson." So what teachers do as

they impart instructions to students is first of all they're very clear in talking about their objectives. What are we going to learn? They'll also say, "What are my expected--expectations?" So we're

going to be learning to--about today is global warming [makes noise] what I really want you to focus on is how significant carbon monoxide--the release of carbon monoxide into the echo system is

eroding or causing global warming, all right. So they may talk about, "What I expect you to learn. What are my standards?" All right, now, and if you look at--if you--if you're taking a test at

times, those objectives and standards are very, very clear. I want you to have 90% accuracy in doing [makes noise] task but in general--in general lesson design we'll say, "Here's where we're going.

This is what I want you to learn. These are my standards." All right, so let's look back at our slide, the third thing that teachers will do in--after they give you the global expectations, they

start out with the anticipatory set, so that they start framing things and then they start what we're going to call guided observation or teaching, all right. So they basically then begin the

Initiation Response Evaluation cycle. Now, I was talking with Mar, I'm engaged in teaching right now a course on--online. It's a distance course and I'm really having a hard time. I am not having a

difficult time at all telling them what the objectives of the course are. I'm not having trouble talking about the standards. I'm not even really having difficult time giving them the anticipatory

sets or the framing of the content but boy, oh, boy, I'm having a hard time in the fact that I'm--I can't teach them directly. I'm--I can give them content but it's hard for me to move back and forth

in an IRE fashion with these students to make sure that they know the content and know how to talk about the content using the correct vehicle, so in teaching we have input, we have modeling, we have

comprehension checks then there's the look part where we do guided practice further--for further learning and then some type of closure which leads to independent practice. So generally, as we are

moving through curricula and moving to content, we can hear teachers move through these sets of information. Now, in ongoing teaching, generally what gets--let's look at our lists. Let's look at the

last bullet in ongoing teachers, where do teachers on the next day tend to start over again? So what I'm talking about here is--and continued instruction at the beginning of--let's talk about at the

beginning of a new unit I can predict that a teacher is going to start giving out the overall objectives and the overall standards, all right. But now at the beginning of instruction in an ongoing

manner, we have then the teachers primarily starting where? Let's go back to our slide if we can as we look at this. In an ongoing manner as we continue in longitudinal instruction when the beginning

of the day starts, we may have a teacher going back to that anticipatory set giving you a little bit more look but frequently they just jump right into the teaching, the book section and move

forward. So part of what I have to know is as I'm interpreting, okay, where are we in the whole longitudinal aspect of this unit? All right, or if this is a seven-week long course on X or is this a

two-week unit on such and such? Is this is a touch-finish, I just want to give you a little bit of information. So as--the more I know about the breadth and depths of this course and how far along is

this, the better I can predict where that educator is in their design of their delivery of material. All right, this next slide is a variety of different language structures that educators frequently

use. Now, what I would like for you to do, I want you to write down--this is a homework assignment for you. This is a took assignment. What I would like for you to do if these are new to your--terms

for you is to find out what these terms mean. Try to construct examples of some of them and then specifically think about two things. What do they sound like and where might these appear within units

of instruction? All right, so go back to the previous slide that we've just talk about and then we're going to back this all out then go to these types of rhetoric or discourse and think about where

these types of language might appear within the delivery of content in the classroom. All right, as we look at organization, so we've talk about a lot, we've talk about initiation response. We've

talked about who teachers build instructions based on student abilities and curricular outcomes. We look at how lesson plan is built. Now, part of what we do have to look at is, "Okay. As I'm

speaking, as I'm educating, I'm going to have levels of organization in my discourse, so there are variety of different levels that we can look at. So first of all we're going to have intra-topical

organization. Now, let's stop and think about necessarily our mountain here, that might help us out. So I've got my mountain whether I'm organizing to go mountain climbing or I'm organizing to rappel

down the mountain. I have intra-topical organization, so if you can look at me again, so whether I'm building up to a point or I'm rappelling down and I'm--so I'm talking about all of these different

things. I'm going to have some level of organization within that topic. Now, there are times that in discourse, what teachers will do is they'll render a topic then they'll begin another topic in

what should happen in good instruction is parallel discourse building especially if these have correlated attributes, all right. Especially is these has some type of relationship, if they have to

synchronize into advance learning. All right, so what I'm saying then is intra-topical these are going to have some synthesis. Inter-topical means that across the variety of text there is a

parallelness to them. Cross-topical organizations say, "Okay. This is the pattern of this type of instruction. This is the pattern of this type of instruction. This is the pattern of this type of

instruction." So you can go in and you can listen to the discourse act in classrooms in different types of settings, so science, social studies, language arts classes, mathematics. The type of

discourse structure varies across those settings, so that would be cross-topical organization. How you talk in these settings is different but intra-topical organization they have a way to synthesize

that text and if they are building upon it, they will use the same type of pattern of organization as they move the student through the curricula in that particular setting. And what's happening is

basically there is a--the desire to build what we've talk about is breadth and depth of knowledge. All right, so we've talked a lot about, "Okay. Yeah, yeah, enough, enough already." And we know

settings and where we're building, renewing these mountains. How do--how do teachers frame their discourse? All right, how do they build things up? How do they demarcate? And I've used this example I

think before but if you take the small child and you set them down at a table and then supposed the table top is white or there's the white paper and you set a white paper on top of the white table

top or the white paper and you tell them to color. They'll color all over the place. They will not have the boundaries to constrain their artwork, all right. So what I know is as speakers move

forward, they specifically work to try to constrain. So you heard me, go back and say, "Okay. So this is, this is and this. So we've talk about that. Now, this is this, this, this, this. And we've

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